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What does a womens circumcision look like

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Female genital mutilation FGM comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. The practice is mostly carried out by traditional circumcisers, who often play other central roles in communities, such as attending childbirths. In many settings, health care providers perform FGM due to the belief that the procedure is safer when medicalized 1. FGM is recognized internationally as a violation of the human rights of girls and women. It reflects deep-rooted inequality between the sexes, and constitutes an extreme form of discrimination against women.

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What is FGM

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Researchers estimate more than , girls and women in the U. This fact sheet has been updated to include the most current and commonly used terms for female genital cutting FGC.

Types 1 and 2 are the most common, but all types may be harmful. Families often feel pressure to have their daughter cut so she is accepted by their community.

Other reasons may include:. In some countries, only a small number of girls and women are cut. In other countries, nearly all girls and women are cut. Also, how much wealth, education, and the type of education a girl's parents receive may influence their choice to have a daughter cut.

How bad these problems are depends on: 7. Type 3 causes more health problems than type 1 or type 2. Type 2 and type 3 cause more serious health problems than type 1. Girls and women who come to the United States and have already been cut may face additional health problems.

Doctors and other health care providers may not know how to adequately treat the girls' and women's unique health needs. In some cases, health care providers lack training on counseling and caring for girls and women who have been cut. These include: 9. It is painful and offers no health benefits. For these reasons, the U. Some approaches include:. Recent research shows that these efforts may be working. ICE ice. Girls and women in the United States who have already been cut need access to clinically and culturally appropriate care from trained health care providers.

Public Health Reports, , 1—8. Population Reference Bureau. World Health Organization. Eliminating female genital mutilation. An interagency statement PDF, 2. United Nations Population Fund. Population Council. Abdulcadir, J. Swiss Medical Weekly.

DOI: Reisel, D. Maturitas, 80, 48— Iavazzo, C. Female genital mutilation and infections: a systematic review of the clinical evidence. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, , — Andersson, S. Sexual quality of life in women who have undergone female genital mutilation: a case-control study PDF, 12 KB.

Brown, E. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 21 3 , — Beine, K. Conceptions of prenatal care among Somali women in San Diego. Journal of Nurse Midwifery, 40 4 , — Pavlish, C. Somali immigrant women and the American health care system: Discordant beliefs, divergent expectations, and silent worries. Nour, N. Berg, R. Female genital mutilation and obstetric outcome: WHO collaborative prospective study in six African countries.

The Lancet, , — Department of Justice. Cailin Crockett, M. Department of Health and Human Services. Wanda K. Jones, Dr. Crista Johnson-Agbakwu, M. Bettina Shell-Duncan, Ph. Nicole Warren, Ph. Citation of the source is appreciated. This content is provided by the Office on Women's Health. Language Assistance Available. Skip to main content. Popular topics Vision and mission Leadership Programs and activities In your community Funding opportunities Internships and jobs View all pages in this section.

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Female genital mutilation or cutting. Expand all. This is also called clitoridectomy. Type 2: Partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia the inner and outer "lips" that surround the vagina Type 3: Sewing the labia together to make the vaginal opening smaller.

This is called infibulation. The clitoris may be left in place. Type 4: All other harm to the female genitalia for nonmedical purposes, including pricking, piercing, cutting, scraping, and cauterization burning. Other reasons may include: To help ensure a woman remains a virgin until marriage Hygiene.

Some communities believe that the external female genitals that are cut the clitoris or the labia or both are unclean. Rite of passage. Condition of marriage. In some countries, a girl or woman is cut in order to be suitable for marriage. The age when girls are cut varies from country to country and even within communities. Girls are most at risk between birth and 15 years. In other countries, most girls are cut between 5 and Women may be cut just before marriage.

Some communities wait until the first pregnancy. How bad these problems are depends on: 7 How clean sterile the place is where cutting happens.

The cutting is often done with glass, razor blades, or knives. The tools may not be sterilized between cuttings. The general health of the girl or woman. Immediate medical problems can include: 7 Severe pain. Girls usually don't get any pain medicine before or after they are cut.

Serious bleeding Infection of the wound. Girls can get fever, shock, and even die if the infection is not treated. Girls are held down often against their will and may not understand why. Long-term health problems include: 9 Infections, such as genital abscesses sores filled with pus that must be drained and infectious diseases such as hepatitis B.

Problems having sex. This can lead to a lack of interest in sex, vaginal dryness, and lower overall satisfaction. It might not stretch as easily for sex or childbirth.

Nigerian Facebook user posts graphic photos of female circumcision

We use cookies to improve our service for you. You can find more information in our data protection declaration. Girls today are less likely to undergo female genital mutilation than 30 years ago. But with the practice still near-universal in some countries, activists say the goal to end FGM in a decade will be tough. For Lisa Camara, a new mother from The Gambia, it was a decision that goes against generations of practice in her community.

Female genital mutilation FGM , also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision , [a] is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia. Typically carried out by a traditional circumciser using a blade, FGM is conducted from days after birth to puberty and beyond.

Lagos, Nigeria CNN A Nigerian man has caused outrage after he posted graphic pictures on Facebook showing children apparently being circumcised. Chat with us in Facebook Messenger. Find out what's happening in the world as it unfolds. More Videos FGM survivor: Fundamentally, it's 'child abuse'

Why Some Women Choose to Get Circumcised

But for some girls, the message is that, to be accepted by the wider community, their bodies must be cut, altered and even reshaped through a practice known as female genital mutilation FGM. Often viewed as a rite of passage, FGM can result in serious health complications, including infections, chronic pain and infertility. It can even be deadly. Despite being internationally recognized as a human rights violation, some million girls and women alive today have undergone FGM, and if current rates persist, an estimated 68 million more will be cut between and Girls at a school in Kenya, where many students are receiving support after running away from home to avoid FGM and child marriage. Female genital mutilation refers to any procedure involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genitals for non-medical reasons. There are four types of FGM :. Type II, also called excision, is the partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora.

Top 5 things you didn’t know about female genital mutilation

Victorian government portal for older people, with information about government and community services and programs. Type a minimum of three characters then press UP or DOWN on the keyboard to navigate the autocompleted search results. Female genital cutting or circumcision FGC involves the cutting or altering of the external female genital organs. FGC is a traditional cultural practice rather than a religious practice, and its origins are unknown.

Female Genital Mutilation comprises all procedures involving the removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons, as defined by the World Health Organisation WHO. Female Genital Mutilation comprises all procedures involving the removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.

Female genital mutilation female circumcision can be done in different ways. Sometimes, the outer parts of the vulva have been damaged, or some part of them has been cut away. Sometimes, you can hardly see that anything has been cut. Here are some examples of what it could look like:.

Slide show: Circumcision of the vulva – female genital mutilation

All A-Z health topics. View all pages in this section. The javascript used in this widget is not supported by your browser.

Back to Health A to Z. Female genital mutilation FGM is a procedure where the female genitals are deliberately cut, injured or changed, but there's no medical reason for this to be done. It's also known as female circumcision or cutting, and by other terms, such as sunna, gudniin, halalays, tahur, megrez and khitan, among others. All women and girls have the right to control what happens to their bodies and the right to say no to FGM. Help is available if you have had FGM or you're worried that you or someone you know is at risk. UK website.

Female genital mutilation or cutting

Female genital mutilation refers to the partial or complete removal of the external female genitalia. It is typically done between infancy and the age of 15, but adult women may also undergo the procedure. The practice is thought to have started before the advent of either Christianity or Islam. FGM is sometimes called female circumcision , but the implications of female circumcision are quite different from those of male circumcision. Nowadays, more FGM operations are carried out by healthcare professionals, including up to 77 percent of cases in Egypt. However, 4 in 5 operations worldwide are still performed by a traditional practitioner, often in unsanitary conditions, with serious health implications. FGM is most common in the north-eastern, western, and eastern regions of Africa, and some parts of the Middle East and Asia.

Female circumcision is illegal in several African and European countries and in Canada. As of September , it will be illegal in the United States to  by CR Horowitz - ‎ - ‎Cited by 70 - ‎Related articles.

Female genital mutilation involves the removal of the clitoris, inner-and-outer lips of the vagina, and the sewing or stapling together of the two sides of the vulva leaving only a small hole to pass urine and menstruate — depending on the type. Typically FGM is performed with a razor blade on girls between the ages of four and 12, traditionally without anaesthetic. There is no way that would be deemed acceptable," says Taina Bien Aime, director of the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women , who adds that comparisons between male and female circumcision are unhelpful.

Why do so many girls still face FGM?

Many international groups are concerned about FGC, which is practiced extensively in parts of Africa and the Middle East and is linked to infections, infertility, and childbirth complications. Organizations such as the United Nations have campaigned against the practice, calling for its abolition as a matter of global health and human rights. But despite a decades-old movement against it, FGC rates in some countries haven't budged. While younger women are increasingly going uncut in countries such as Nigeria and the Central African Republic, according to a survey by the Population Reference Bureau , in Egypt more than 80 percent of teenagers still undergo the procedure.

Female genital cutting or circumcision (FGC)

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